Gaius Musonius Rufus try one of the four higher Stoic philosophers of your own Roman empire, and additionally Seneca, Epictetus, and you may Marcus Aurelius. He recommended a partnership to live on to have advantage, maybe not satisfaction, because virtue conserves united states on the mistakes that damage lifestyle. Whether or not viewpoints is more tough to see than other subjects, it is more critical since it corrects the new errors in thinking conducive to problems in the acting. The guy also known as to possess rustic individual activities, such as the best vegetarian food diet, and you may restricted, cheap clothes and you can footwear, in order to achieve a good, strong lifestyle inside the agreement into values away from Stoicism. He thought that thinking have to be read to not nurture perfection inside the objections otherwise a too much cleverness, but growing a good profile, an audio mind, and you can a tough, healthy human anatomy. Musonius doomed all the privileges and you may disapproved regarding sexual pastime away from age education in the beliefs because the dudes, because virtues are identical for both sexes. He acknowledged the brand new marriage with many college students. He confirmed Stoic orthodoxy during the knowledge one none death, injury, insult, pain, impoverishment, neither exile is usually to be dreadful as not one of them was evils.
Table out-of Information
- Philosophy, Philosophers, and Advantage
- Food and Frugality
- Feminine and you will Equivalent Studies
- Sex, ily, and you will Senior years
- Records and further Learning
step one. Life
Gaius Musonius Rufus came into this world just before 30 C.Age. into the Volsinii, a keen Etruscan city of Italy, since the a good Roman eques (knight), the course regarding aristocracy ranked 2nd simply to senators. He was a friend out-of Rubellius Plautus, which emperor Nero watched since a threat. Whenever Nero banished Rubellius up to 60 C.Elizabeth., Musonius observed your toward exile inside Asia Slight. Once Rubellius died in 62 C.E. Musonius returned to Rome, where he coached and you may practiced Stoicism, which roused brand new uncertainty off Nero. For the breakthrough of your great conspiracy up against Nero, provided of the Calpurnius Piso for the 65 C.E., Nero banished Musonius to your arid, desolate island of Gyaros on the Aegean Sea. He returned to Rome beneath the leadership out of Galba inside the 68 C.E. and you will made an effort to advocate comfort to the Flavian armed forces approaching Rome. In the 70 C.Age. Musonius shielded new conviction of the philosopher Publius Egnatius Celer, who had betrayed Barea Soranus, a pal regarding Rubellius Plautus. Musonius is exiled another time, by the Vespasian, however, returned to Rome on the leadership out of Titus. Musonius are very recognized together with a sizeable adopting the through the his lifestyle. He passed away prior to 101-dos C.E.
Possibly Musonius penned absolutely nothing himself, otherwise what the guy performed develop was shed, due to the fact not one away from his or her own blog survive. Their philosophical lessons survive given that 30-a few apophthegms (pithy sayings) and twenty-you to extended discourses, all seem to kept of the anyone else as well as into the Greek, except for Aulus Gellius’ testimonia from inside the Latin. For this reason, chances are high the guy lectured for the Greek. Musonius favored a direct and you may concise style of knowledge. The guy trained the teacher out-of viewpoints should not present of a lot arguments but alternatively is always to provide several, clear, important arguments mainly based in order to their listener and you can couched when it comes recognized become convincing to that particular listener.
step three. Thinking, Philosophers, and you will Virtue
Musonius believed that (Stoic) philosophy was the most helpful question. Values persuades us, predicated on Stoic practise, that none lives, neither wide range, nor fulfillment is an excellent, and that none demise, neither poverty, neither serious pain was an evil; for this reason the latter aren’t is feared. Advantage is the simply a great since it alone possess you of to make problems into the way of living. Furthermore, it is merely the fresh new philosopher just who appears to make a study from advantage. The person who claims to become learning values need to behavior it much more faithfully compared to person reading medication or any other experience, once the philosophy is far more very important, and much more difficult to learn, than any most other search. This is because, in place of most other skills, people who data philosophy were contaminated in their souls having vices and you can careless models by the studying one thing as opposed to what they will learn for the beliefs. Although philosopher doesn’t data advantage exactly as theoretical education. Rather, Musonius insists you to practice is more important than just concept, because behavior better prospects me to step than principle. He stored one to even when people are naturally disposed to live on instead error and has now the ability to end up being virtuous, someone who has not in fact discovered the ability of virtuous lifestyle can not be likely to live as opposed to error any further than some body who is not a trained doctor, singer, scholar, helmsman, otherwise athlete might be likely to habit the individuals knowledge instead of error.